Every unit of material sent to waste carries a disposal cost. However the true cost of waste is more than just the cost of disposal. It also includes the additional cost of raw materials, energy and labour involved in making the product in the first place. This can be 5–20 times higher than the cost of disposal. So waste reduction programmes offer businesses a double saving.

Excessive waste at the end of a product's life is often due to the inefficient use of resources when it was produced. Dealing with waste has an impact on the environment so it makes sense to address the initial design of products to sustain our natural resources and the environment.

 Case Studies for Waste Minimisation in the Plastics Industry